There are different kinds of homophobic violence in societies. One can be a victim of hate speech, of gay bashing, discrimination and rape. Mostly its not just one phenomen one suffers of. The definitions are not clear-cut. We will focus on the phenomenon of the so-called corrective rape in South Africa. Corrective rape indicates that women and men are getting raped to "cure" them from their sexual orientation, and its not just a marginal problem. The New York Times, for example, writes that "one in four men admit to having sex with a woman who did not consent to intercourse, and nearly half of these men admitted to raping more than once." (http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/07/26/opinion/26corrective-rape.html?_r=0)
This topic is made visible by artits such as Zanele Muholi and Clare Carter.
- Cock, Jacklyn (2003): "Engendering gay and lesbian rights. The equality clause in the South African consitution", in: Women's Studies International Forum, Volume 26, pp. 35-45.
- Donham, Donald (1998): "Freeing South Africa. The modernization of male-male sexuality in Soweto", in: Cultural Anthropology, Volume 13, pp. 3-21.
- Hindustan Times (2004): "Rape new weapon against South African lesbians", in: http://mailman.lbo-talk.org/2004/2004-July/014269.html.
- Britton, Hannah (2006): "Organising against gender violence in South Africa", in: Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 32, pp. 145-163.
- Lock Swarr, Amanda (2012): "Paradoxes of butchness. Lesbian masculinities and sexual violence in contemporary South Africa", in: Signs, Volume 37, pp. 961-986.
- Gunkel, Henriette (2010): The cultural politics of female sexuality in South Africa, New York, Routledge.
- Fisher, Max (2013): "From colonialism to ‘kill the gays’. The surprisingly recent roots of homophobia in Africa" http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/06/27/from-colonialism-to-kill-the-gays-the-surprisingly-recent-roots-of-homophobia-in-africa/.
- Okafor, Udoka (2013): "'Corrective' rape in South Africa. Targeted violence against homosexual womyn", in: Huffpost Gay Voices, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/udoka-okafor/corrective-rape-in-south-africa_b_4292271.html.
Mamela Nyamza and Mojisola Adebajo's dance and theatre performance "I stand corrected" (2012) at the Singapore International Festival of Arts: